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1. Eat often and small portions of food. This convention is widely used by most dieters, but actually, there is no difference to the body in the amount and frequency of meals. From the standpoint of metabolism and calorie consumption only quantity and quality of calories matters, not the frequency of their consumption.

2. Snacks are harmful. They are, if it is a chocolate bar or a piece of cake. It is better to choose in favor of an apple, brown rice and other wholewheat products, as their digestion requires more energy.

3. Food should be eaten without species. Another unconfirmed myth. According to the research of dietitians, if you add a little spice, for example, cayenne pepper, to your usual meal, at the next meal you will eat less. Most hot spices contribute to the rapid digestion and increase metabolic rate. However, people who have stomach problems should avoid this practice.

4. Weight-reduction pills. It has been written many times that these pills do more harm than good. But still there are people who believe in such miracles. Unfortunately, magic pills that dissolve all extra pounds have not been invented yet.

5. Fasting once a week do not help to become slim. Body fat needs at least 72 hours to start dissolving, therefore you will lose only water and muscle tissue instead of fat. It is much safer and better for your body, when the process of weight loss occurs gradually.

6. Stop smoking and you will put on weight. It is one of the most frequent reasons why smokers do not say good-bye to smoking once and for all. Nicotine does speed up the metabolism, but not as much as is commonly believed. Just those who quit smoking usually replace cigarettes with additional portions of food, and that becomes the cause of extra pounds. An alternative is replace a cigarette with a sugar free gum or vitamins.

7. The longer the diet, the better the outcome. In fact, weight loss slows down over time because our body gets used to short rations of food. So, if you decided to go on a diet, it is better to choose one with a small number of days, and then return to the correct balanced nutrition.

9. Sweeteners are better than sugar. Actually, low-calorie sweeteners are even more fattening than sugar. The point is that our body simply cannot distinguish it from regular sugar. Sweet taste prompts the body to prepare for a large intake of calories, but since sweeteners do not contain calories, body then becomes confused and either demands more food or burns less energy - with the result showing on the scales. Consequently, it would be far better to eat products containing sugar, but in small doses.

10. Refusal of certain food types leads to rapid weight loss. This is a myth, which helps earn virtual nutritionists on the Internet good money for making a personal list of “wrong” products for you. The fact that he only way to lose weight is to spend more calories than you consume has been long proven, and this is the main key to success.

According to independently conducted surveys in the field of behavioral genetics, the contribution of heredity to intelligence is 50-80%, and the remaining 20-50% are defined by environment.
Around the middle of the 20th century, so-called divergence tests began to appear, or simply tests of creative abilities. Creativity tests were also included in behavioral genetic studies, but the situation was to the contrary: creativity is on 80% defined by training and education and only on 20% - by heredity.

How IQ tests work. Intelligence test measures one's ability to solve clearly defined tasks, which have only one way to solve, and only one correct answer. For instance, subject is expected to do sums; cross out the word that doesn’t belong with the other four, similar to each other; continue numerical series, etc. Each task needs no more than a few minutes for its execution, and usually subject must solve several tens of them in the limited time available. As a result, an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is determined, which shows the measure of one’ ability to solve standard tasks, compared with the average value of the same age group.

How creativity tests work. By contrast, creativity tests contain tasks which do not have preassigned solution and there can be indefinitely many ways to solve each task. Such tasks require a variety of skills, including ingenuity and originality. For example, subject may be asked to come up with extraordinary ways to use ordinary things (pencil, brick), as many as possible; invent an improvement to an object (phone, fire-engine); make up as many endings to a story as imaginable, etc.

To sum up, intelligence tests measure an ability to quickly solve many defined standard tasks, and this ability is at least half genetically determined. But one of the most distinguishing features of human thought is the ability to invent new and original ideas. And the development of this ability depends on life experience, on favorable or unfavorable environment for creativity, and, what is the most important, on interaction with creative people, who tend to be creative themselves, demonstrate the appropriate type of behavior and encourage it in others as well.

Finally, Ph. D. In Psychology M. Egorova has recently conducted experiments examining the link between creativity of children at one age and intelligence of the same children when they were older. It was found that the level of intelligence in older age depends on the level of creativity in younger age. But not vice versa - intelligence in a younger age doesn’t affect creativity in older age.
Thus, in order to become intelligent adults, people should be able to develop their creativity in their childhood. There is no intelligence without creativity.

In 1944, at the height of the Second World War, on a British army base somewhere in England, Major C. Northcote Parkinson was feeling overwhelmed by the amount of paperwork senior officers insisted on sending him. And then, disaster stuck! The chief of the base went on leave, his deputy fell sick, and a third officer departed on urgent business. Parkinson was left alone, desperately worrying that he would be unable to cope with all the work.

But then, much to his surprise – and delight – nothing happened at all. Although the flood of paperwork stopped, the war carried on quite happily without it. As he later concluded, ‘There had never been anything to do. We’d just been making work for each other.’ And so in an article in 1955 he composed Parkinson’s law, which states ‘work expands to fill the time available for its completion’. What Parkinson had realized was that in any bureaucratic organization the people in charge need to have people below them. However, the more employees they have, the more work the bosses must find for them to do: and so unnecessary work is created just to keep everyone busy.

The origin of the second law comes from 1949, when Captain Edward Murphy, an engineer working on project for the US Air Force, criticized a technician saying ‘If there is any way to do it wrong, he’ll find it’. This became known as ‘Murphy’s law, which, in fact, is much older than its name. It is traditionally known that people have been complaining about the negative things in life since we first developed the power of speech. However, this law can actually be a useful tool to prevent mistakes at work, because thanks to being aware of Murphy’s law everyone can aware of the permanent potential for disaster.

The Peter Principle was conceived by Dr. Laurence Peter and Raymond Hull. In their book The Peter Principle, they described it as ‘in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence’. The idea is that in any organization employees are promoted as long as they are able to work efficiently. Eventually, they reach their limit: a post in which they are no longer efficient, and in which they will stay, unable to obtain further promotions. Logically, this means that in time, every post tends to be occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out his duties and that the real work is actually done by employees – often lower down the ladder – who are still to reach their level of incompetence.

So according to Messes Parkinson, Murphy and Peter, you may end up working for an incompetent boss who makes you do unnecessary work and who invariable finds the way to make things go terribly wrong. However, do not panic! Fortunately, there are plenty of exceptions to these laws.


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